China is the third - largest country in the world. The culture of China is home to one of the world’s oldest and most complex civilizations China boasts a history rich in over 5,000 years of artistic and political advancement.
Situated in eastern Asia, and on the western shore of the Pacific Ocean, the People’s Republic of China covers a land area of 9.6 million square kilometers, with an inland and coastal water area of more than 4.7 million square kilometers and an eastern and southern continental coastline extending for about 18,000 kilometers. Its vast maritime territory is studded with 7,600 islands, of which Taiwan is the largest with an area of 35,798 square kilometers. China shares common borders with 14 countries and is adjacent to 8 nations on the ocean. There are 4 municipalities directly under central government administration, 23 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 2 special administrative regions. The capital city is Beijing.
China lies mainly in the North Temperate Zone, characterized by a warm climate and distinctive seasons, with a climate well suited for habitation. From September to April the following year, dry and cold winter monsoons blow from Siberia and the Mongolian Plateau, resulting in cold and dry winters and great differences in the temperatures of north and south China. From April to September, warm and humid summer monsoons blow from the seas in the east and south, resulting in overall high temperatures and plentiful rainfall, and little differences in the temperatures of north and south China. In terms of temperature, the nation can be sectored from south to north into equatorial, tropical, subtropical, warm-temperate, temperate, and cold-temperate zones. Precipitation gradually declines from the southeastern coastal areas to the northwestern inland areas, and the average annual precipitation varies greatly from place to place. In southeastern coastal areas, it reaches over 1,500 mm, while in northwestern areas; it drops to below 200 mm.
China, with a recorded history of more than 5,000 years, is one of the four ancient civilizations. From the time of the founding of Xia dynasty in the 21st century BC to the late Spring and Autumn period, with the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties in between, society was slavery based. From the time of the Warring States period of 475 BC to the early period of the Qing dynasty, with Qin, Western Han, Eastern Han, Three Kingdom, Western Jin, Eastern Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties, Sui, Tang, Five dynasties, Song, Liao, Jin, Yuan, and Ming in between, society was feudal. After the Opium War in 1840, China gradually turned into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society as a result of imperialist invasion. In 1911, the 1911 Revolution, led by Sun Yat-sen, ended the monarchy and on October 1, 1949, the CPC, under the leadership of Mao Zedong, led the masses and established the People’s Republic of China.
China has a relatively mature industrial system, with established commercial categories and products. Agriculture holds an important place in the economy and the output of grains, cotton, sugar, oil, tea and other agricultural products is among the highest in the world. China’s handcrafts industry is also world famous for its sophistication and skill. China has now built a traffic and transport network with railways, highways, waterways and airlines as the main contributors to this infrastructure.